The purpose of this study is not only to shed light upon the nature of Christian anti-Japanese resistance movements in the Youngnam area, but also to research the ability of these groups to advance resistance under extreme conditions and clearly delin ...
The purpose of this study is not only to shed light upon the nature of Christian anti-Japanese resistance movements in the Youngnam area, but also to research the ability of these groups to advance resistance under extreme conditions and clearly delineate the historical importance of such movements.
In areas of Gyeongbuk Province, the Empire of Zion Mountain movement was a strong anti-Japanese movement carried out in the late days of Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula, during a period when other independence movements were less active due to severe oppression. From October 13, 1943 they began to burn Japanese national flags and the "Sinboong" of the Emperor of Japan.
On April 25, 1944, the 700 members of this Christian organization read aloud a declaration of national foundation and held a national founding service. They also created a new flag and national anthem, and organized a political structure of government. The government created consisted of a cabinet, including a prime minister, heads of ministries, Supreme Commanders of the Navy, Army and Air Force, and a governor-general of Japan. Territories were divided into 12 provinces of Korea and 1 province of Japan, to be ruled by a governor-general.
On May 21, 1945, the Japanese police of Gyeongbuk Province police division arrested, questioned and imprisoned 33 leaders of the Empire of Zion Mountain movement. They were considered independence movement leaders who created organizations and carried out anti-Japanese movements, and questioned and brutally tortured accordingly. Leaders were imprisoned at various police stations until they were released on August 16 and 17 of 1945, after Japan's defeat in WWII and Korean independence.
This work has examined the early roots of Gyeongnam area protest leaders in the broader context of Confucian theory during the Chosun Dynasty. We have been able to discover similarities with Confucian thought introduced by Jo Sik, and the form of action developed by his school.
Unlike tradition Buddhist doctrine, the Nammyeong school did not advocate inaction in the face of social and political problems.
Secondly, the Nammyeong school emphasized loyalty.
Third, compromise was unacceptable.
Fourth, the Nammyeong school focused on action rather than theory or contemplation.
Resistance groups in the Gyeongnam area emphasized action over theory, similar to the Nammyeong school. In conclusion, these characteristics show how the Gyeongnam area Nammyeong school strongly influenced resistance to Shinto worship.
We have examined the connection between Ju Nam-sun's resistance to Shinto worship and Baek Young-hee's activities. Also, this research shows how Pyongyang's Lee Ki-sun and Chae Jung-min were able to connect to Gyeongnam area activists through Lee In-jae, a young man from the same area as Han Sang-dong. Through this connection, Gyeongnam area resistance against Shinto worship sparked the beginnings of a resistance movement across the country.
From studies of Gyeongnam area communities in Namhae-gun Naesan, Hadong-gun Bukbang-li, and Sanchung-gun Jungsan-li, we find firstly all three communities were anti-Shinto resistance groups and centered upon general members of the church instead of church officials or leaders. We also note the how female members of the church were active in communities in the Seongsan community of Namhae-gun Naesan and Bukbang-li. Second, these communities formed a geographical chain linking Mt. Jirisan and outlying islands. Third, we find these groups were strongly influenced by Rev. Son Yang-won.