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연구 과제 명: 초기 중세 유럽의 여성 문헌 연구 (Women’s Literature in the Early Medieval Europe) 부 제: 암흑시대를 빛낸 여성들 –라드군트(Radegund)에서 마틸다(Matilda)까지 (Sainted Women of the Dark Ages: From Radegund to Matilda)
Researcher who has been awarded a research grant by Humanities and Social Studies Support Program of NRF has to submit an end product within 6 months(* depend on the form of business)
사업별 신청요강보기
  • Researchers have entered the information directly to the NRF of Korea research support system
Project Number A00027
Year(selected) 2004 Year
the present condition of Project 종료
State of proposition 재단승인
Completion Date 2006년 04월 26일
Year type 결과보고
Year(final report) 2006년
Research Summary
  • Korean
  • 필자는 본 논문에서 중세초기 수도원을 배경으로 왕성하게 활동한 네 명의 여성들의 삶과 활동을 고찰했다. 라드군트는 혼란기의 프랑스에 기독교공동체가 뿌리를 내리는 모판 역할을 했다. 라드군트의 역할은 프랑스지역에 기독교가 안정적으로 전달되는데 중요한 역할을 했다. 힐다는 영국기독교가 중세 로마식 기독교의 한 축으로 등장하는 과정에서 영국기독교를 균형 잡아 주었다. 이런 힐다의 공헌은 영국의 기독교가 로마와 유럽대륙으로 연결하는 과정에서 큰 공헌을 했다. 르오바는 보니파키우스와 함께 영국과 유럽대륙을 이으면서 중세 독일 기독교의 뿌리를 제공해 주었다. 르오바의 역할은 중세 독일 기독교의 자리매김에 매우 중요하다. 흐로츠비트는 수녀원과 문필가의 중세여성의 역할에 새로운 차원을 더해 주었다. 흐로츠비트의 역할은 기독교가 다양한 문학활동을 통해 한단계 발전하는 예를 잘 보여준다.

    이러한 고찰을 통해 우리는 다음과 같은 몇 가지 사항을 알 수 있다. 첫째, 적지 않은 여성들이 수녀원 담 안이나 집 안에서 피동적 주체로서 침묵만을 지키고 있지 않았다. 여성들의 목소리는 자신의 작은 침실을 넘어서 유럽 기독교를 울리는 ‘커다란 목소리’로 확장되었다. 물론 시대를 뛰어넘는 기록을 남긴 여성들은 평범한 배경을 가진 이들은 아니다. 모두가 왕족이나 귀족출신의 여성들이었다. 둘째, 여성들의 활동은 경제적인 활동과 조직의 운영 같은 일상사에서부터 선교와 종교적 사건에 이르기까지 다양하게 등장한다. 힐다의 탁월한 행정과 조직의 능력은 필자가 수도원의 지도자가 되는데 중요한 역할을 했다. 이중수도원에서 여성지도력의 운명이 안정적이지는 않았지만, 수도원의 운영과 외부 상황에 대한 적극적인 관여는 여성들의 왕성한 역할을 잘 보여준다. 셋째, 중세초기 여성들의 활동은 기독교의 중심적 사건에 피동적 구경꾼으로서 만이 아니라 남성들과 거의 동등한 수준으로 활동영역을 넓혀갔다는 점을 보여준다. 더 나아가 이 같은 여성들의 종교적인 활동과 사상들은 초기중세를 구성해 나간 중심적 축이었음을 알 수 있다.

    필자가 본 논문에서 지적했듯이, 여성들은 중세초기 기독교의 확장과 정립과정에서 남성 지도자들의 반려자 역할을 넘어 필수적인 존재로 중요한 역할을 하였다. 창세기의 파라다이스가 아담과 이브의 손에 의해 가꾸어졌듯이, 중세초기 기독교도 남성과 여성의 공존과 협력에 의해 이루어졌다. 기독교의 역사와 전승은 남성과 여성을 포함한 온갖 종류의 기독교인의 노력이 집대성된 공동의 유산이다. 이런 의미에서 여성의 활동을 정당하게 평가하고 자리매김하는 것은 매우 중요하다.

  • English
  • The aim of this paper is to explore the life and works of four women leaders in early medieval Christianity who played a central role in fostering faith and learning: Radegund (d.587) in France, Hilda (d.680) in England, and Leoba (d.780) and Hrotsvit (d.973) in Germany. The criteria for selecting these four examples are as follows: first, those who greatly contributed to the formation and expansion of early medieval Christianity; second, those who knew the importance of religious life of individuals and groups; third, those who showed feminine characteristics in their activities and writings. Primarily based upon their own writings, I attempted critically to analyze their works, literary features and skills, and their place within Christian history and thought.

    Radegund played a foundational role in the Christian communities taking root in a France beset by chaos in the seventh century. Radegund, wife of King Clothar and abbess of Poitiers, formed a safe and comfortable religious community of women protected from the impending violence and barbarity. Her enduring works made it possible for Christianity eventually set its foundations in French territory, and she also established a bridgehead through which Christianity could spread to the northern Europe. Hilda, abbess of the monastery of Whitby in Northumbria, played a decisive role in adopting Roman Christianity during the turbulent conflicts in Britain between Celtic and Roman Christianity. Her double monastery in Whitby was a good model for how Christians and pagans should live together to many Christians around the world. Leoba, beloved partner of Bonifacius in shaping the early stage of German Christianity, connected England and European Christianity in her work as a missionary. The Vita of Leoba not only shows the daily life of British convents but also the difficult circumstances of the mission field in Germany. As a nun and writer, Hrotsvit raised the level of the female religious for early medieval Christian women. Strongly supported by the Ottonian empire, she left many important writings on saintly legends, plays, and histories.
    From this analysis, we can presume that not a few women Christian leaders played important roles in shaping early medieval Christianity. First, women did not keep silent behind the monastic walls as passive witness to Christianity. Their small but strong voices spread over their tiny cells and became clamor validus which rang through European society and Christianity. Second, we can find their works and presence not only in the activities of their daily lives, including administrative and economic work of their community, but also in crucial missionary works and religious occasions. Hilda’s superb administrative works, for instance, drew the attention of her abbot. Even if women leadership in a double monastery was usually limited, their active involvement in managing monastery affairs and handling worldly duties show their important roles. Third, the writings of some women leaders were oftentimes no less important than that of male leaders.

    Going beyond the level of collaborator or partner to men, women Christian leaders were essential partners during the formation period of early medieval Christianity. As Adam and Eve cultivated Paradise in Genesis, the collaboration and partnership of men and women led to the shaping of early medieval Christendom. Christian history and tradition are the shared heritage of many Christians including men and women. In this sense, it is very important to evaluate correctly and recognize the works and contributions of women Christian leaders. Only at that point will the mari-stella in Hrotsvit’s Abraham shine brightly in the skies and make known the meaning of her renowned name.

Research result report
  • Abstract
  • Women in Early Medieval Christianity:
    from Radegund to Hrotsvit

    Abstract JaehyunKim

    The aim of this paper is to explore the life and works of four women leaders in early medieval Christianity who played a central role in fostering faith and learning: Radegund (d.587) in France, Hilda (d.680) in England, and Leoba (d.780) and Hrotsvit (d.973) in Germany. The criteria for selecting these four examples are as follows: first, those who greatly contributed to the formation and expansion of early medieval Christianity; second, those who knew the importance of religious life of individuals and groups; third, those who showed feminine characteristics in their activities and writings. Primarily based upon their own writings, I attempted critically to analyze their works, literary features and skills, and their place within Christian history and thought.

    Radegund played a foundational role in the Christian communities taking root in a France beset by chaos in the seventh century. Radegund, wife of King Clothar and abbess of Poitiers, formed a safe and comfortable religious community of women protected from the impending violence and barbarity. Her enduring works made it possible for Christianity eventually set its foundations in French territory, and she also established a bridgehead through which Christianity could spread to the northern Europe. Hilda, abbess of the monastery of Whitby in Northumbria, played a decisive role in adopting Roman Christianity during the turbulent conflicts in Britain between Celtic and Roman Christianity. Her double monastery in Whitby was a good model for how Christians and pagans should live together to many Christians around the world. Leoba, beloved partner of Bonifacius in shaping the early stage of German Christianity, connected England and European Christianity in her work as a missionary. The Vita of Leoba not only shows the daily life of British convents but also the difficult circumstances of the mission field in Germany. As a nun and writer, Hrotsvit raised the level of the female religious for early medieval Christian women. Strongly supported by the Ottonian empire, she left many important writings on saintly legends, plays, and histories.

    From this analysis, we can presume that not a few women Christian leaders played important roles in shaping early medieval Christianity. First, women did not keep silent behind the monastic walls as passive witness to Christianity. Their small but strong voices spread over their tiny cells and became clamor validus which rang through European society and Christianity. Second, we can find their works and presence not only in the activities of their daily lives, including administrative and economic work of their community, but also in crucial missionary works and religious occasions. Hilda’s superb administrative works, for instance, drew the attention of her abbot. Even if women leadership in a double monastery was usually limited, their active involvement in managing monastery affairs and handling worldly duties show their important roles. Third, the writings of some women leaders were oftentimes no less important than that of male leaders.

    Going beyond the level of collaborator or partner to men, women Christian leaders were essential partners during the formation period of early medieval Christianity. As Adam and Eve cultivated Paradise in Genesis, the collaboration and partnership of men and women led to the shaping of early medieval Christendom. Christian history and tradition are the shared heritage of many Christians including men and women. In this sense, it is very important to evaluate correctly and recognize the works and contributions of women Christian leaders. Only at that point will the mari-stella in Hrotsvit’s Abraham shine brightly in the skies and make known the meaning of her renowned name.
  • Research result and Utilization method
  • 연구결과
    본인은 박사후 연수과정지원을 통해 아직까지 국내외에 미약한 분야로 남아있던 서양중세초기 여성들에 대한 연구를 진행했다. 중세기독교의 발전에 중요한 역할을 담당했던 수많은 여성들은 20세기 중반까지의 남성위주 연구에 밀려 주목을 받지 못했다. 최근 들어 왕성한 연구결과는 많은 여성들에 대한 1-2차 연구물을 산출해 내었다. 본인은 이러한 연구에 기초하여 중세수도원을 배경으로 중요한 문헌을 남긴 여성들을 중심으로 연구했다.

    본인은 원래 총 6명의 여성을 연구하기로 했다. 그러나 연구를 진행하는 동안 논문의 완성도를 위해 9세기의 여인 두오다(Dhuoda)와 11세기 마틸다(Matilda)를 제외시켰다. 카롤링거 시대 중요한 여성인 두오다에 대한 결과는 별도의 논문을 통해 발표할 예정이다. 본인은 위의 초록에서도 밝힌대로, 라데군트, 힐다, 르오바, 흐로츠비트에 이르는 네명의 여성이 중세초기 기독교역사에서 갖는 위치와 기능, 그리고 그 의미를 연구했다.

    활용방안
    (1) 본 연구는 무엇보다 중세초기 여성들의 활동을 통해, 중세초기 종교와 지적 세계에 대한 지평을 확대해 줄 것이다. 기독교역사에 대하여, 특히, 여성들이 교회와 수도원에서 담당한 공헌에 대한 이해를 새롭게 해 줄 것이다. (2) 흐로츠비트에게 볼 수 있듯이, 여성들의 문학과 종교활동의 범위는 수녀원 안에만 국한되지 않았다. 그녀의 작품은 그리스와 로마의 고전과 문학적 전통을 담아내고 있기 때문이다. 이런이유로 이 논문은 중세초기를 연구하는 자들에게 입문적 자료를 제공해 줄 것이다. (3) 본 연구과정에서 본인이 수집한 각종 자료들은 인근 학과의 연구자들에게도 적지 않은 도움이 될 것이다.
  • Index terms
  • 초기중세, 수도원, 라드군트, 힐다, 르오바, 흐로츠비트 Medieval women, monastery, convents, Christians, Radegund, Hilda, Leoba, Hrotsvit
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