This research aims to describe how differently tense forms would be used and whether there are the cases that another phrasal expressions(or lexical expressions, not grammatical forms) would be used instead of the tense in question, according to the k ...
This research aims to describe how differently tense forms would be used and whether there are the cases that another phrasal expressions(or lexical expressions, not grammatical forms) would be used instead of the tense in question, according to the kinds of text where they appear. Ultimately this study aims to maintain that these characteristics should be reflected in semantics of tense in Korean.
The temporal location of situation can also be marked by some phrasal expressions, not only tense forms in Korean. For example, the temporal location of the following sentences in some discourse, ①'Na-nun Kang-e ga-ass-da' ② 'Na-neun Kang-e ga-n ba itt-da', could be interpreted as the same. Therefore, this study deals with what relations between tense forms and expressions corresponding to tense forms, like this, would be discovered depending to text characters.
We analyze TV news, newspaper’s articles as a written style’s text, and TV talk show as a spoken style’s text and compare between them.
Following are the results.
1. In case of Korean language, there must be the cases that a tense form wouldn’t appear or would do well, depending on the kinds of text. That is, the kinds of text would be one of many factors which could determine the appearance of tense form.
2. past form, ‘-ett-‘ can be occurred irrespective of the kind of texts.
3. ‘-ettett-‘, the pluperfect form, is more used in spoken text than in written text. And in written text, ‘-(eu)n ba itt-‘ is often used instead of ‘-ettett-‘. Moreover there is a difference of meaning between them, that ‘-ettett-‘ in written style usually marks Pluperfect, on the other hand ‘-ettett-‘ in spoken language usually refer to the implicational meaning such as ‘the situation doesn’t lastany more’, ‘I’ve ever had such an experience’ etc.
4. The appearance of '-gett-', which can be used for future situation, is considerably restricted in written text. Instead of '-gett-', other phrasal expressions, such as '-(eu)l jeonmangi(be expected to)-' '-(eu)ro yejeongdoi(be supposed to)-', are usually used to refer to future situation in written text. most of '-gett-' discovered in written text refer to 'near expected future' or 'speaker's will'.
5. The frequency of '-go itt-' in written text is very high, while the appearance of '-go itt-' is relatively low in spoken text. On the other hand, the frequency of '-nu-' is relatively high in spoken text. This means that the function of '-nu-' in written text can be a little different from '-nu-' in spoken text. In other words, because '-nu-' in written text are often used to refer to 'historical present, narrative present, and future situation', in order to express that situation in question is located in Present, '-go itt-' might be needed.
These results suggest the following. First, tense forms in Korean have some semantic/pragmatic properties(or constituent) which cannot be compatible with particlarlar kinds of text, therefore semantics of tense in Korean might include the consideration of these characteristics. Second, there seems to be a lot of expressions corresponding to tense meaning in Korean. Third, when we look for appropriate devices to express the temporal location of situation in question, the consideration about the kinds and style of text may be necessary.