Three articles have been written and published by this researcher under the theme; "A study on demon and demonism in Russian Culture. Two articles explored Lermontov's <Demon> in relation to the Western and Russian romantistic writers's epic poems and ...
Three articles have been written and published by this researcher under the theme; "A study on demon and demonism in Russian Culture. Two articles explored Lermontov's <Demon> in relation to the Western and Russian romantistic writers's epic poems and the development of lyrical hero's image in Lernontov's poetry. One article researched Bulgakov's <Master and Margarita>. The article that dealt with hagiographic literature in Old Rus' is in the process of review for publication.
The 'Demon' of Lermontov is a peculiar hero, derived from the intertextual relationship with the epic poems of Milton, Byron, and de Vigny. However, their heroes do not reveal absolute desires for reconciliation, anguish, and tragic desperation from its prohibition, which Lermontov's Demon deeply expresses. These motives are inherited from Russian poets like Zukovsky and Podolinsky. From Pushkin's demon is transferred to him the spirit of uncertainty and doubt, contempt for the people and society, features of the master of perception, and yearning for the heavens. Lermontov adds his own peculiar motives, which derived from his poetry, to these features. The lyrical hero in the early poetry of Lermontov is similar to a weak believer, who hesitates at a boundary between the heaven and the hell. Lermontov creates his own demonic hero, Demon, endowing lyrical hero from his poetry with demonic phase. Lermontov develops the image of Demon as his alter-ego, identifying the myth of himself with the myth of demon in the poetry. However, in the process of the eight-time revision of <Demon>, the sense of colleague between the poet and Demon gradually disappears. Eventually, Demon acquires a metaphysical and religious independent phase, being relieved of the phase of the poet's alter-ego and representative of the time. The contrast between the destinies of Tamara, who earns salvation through love, and Demon, who is left alone without any hope of salvation, emphasizes tragedy of Demon, who can‘t escape from God's providence. It presents inclusively the discipline of the universe in the hands of Providence for salvation, and tragedy of the antinomy of virtue and evil.
Bulgakov's <Master and Margarita> is interpreted by scholars as a Hebraistic, Gnostic or Manichaean novel. In my opinion, the poetics of parody(or distortion) allows the various interpretations about this novel's religious and metaphysical meanings. First of all, the parody of deviation from the christian tradition is found in the abasement of the image of Jesus in hero-Eshua and the affirmative features of the image of Satan in Voland. But theirs images do not deviate a lot from the traditional images portrayed by the Russian Orthodox Church. The image of Eshua is based on the image of Jesus, and reveals himself as God-man through his capacity of healing, insight and resurrection. The purpose of the parody of christian tradition in this novel is not at all for keeping the distance from this tradition and creation of new vision, but, on the contrary, is for criticizing the scientific and materialistic view of the world that controls the Soviet Union. Second, in this novel, the parody of faustian tradition is detected. Master and Margarita are unsuccessful Fausts, because they accept the rest in contrast to Goethe's Faust, who incessantly pursues for perception of meaning of life. The parody of faustian tradition is aimed at criticizing the passion for enlightenment only on the basis of rationality and belief in human's reasoning power.
Devils in hagiographic literature in Old Rus' are acting more on the basis of human's psychology by comparison than the Byzantine's hagiography. Especially in <Zhitie Avakkuma>, in the briefing scenes of the exorcism, he reveals a mental state of the self-abasement and inner disruption, which becomes the basis of the psychologism in modern Russian Literature, for avoiding demonic arrogance, clarifying himself as a saint.