There are two North Korean folksongs currently listed in the current elementary school music textbooks, namely, 'Ssarum' and 'Kumdaraekung'. Due to the use of unique scale and decorative sounds, teachers rate them among difficult songs and thus, they ...
There are two North Korean folksongs currently listed in the current elementary school music textbooks, namely, 'Ssarum' and 'Kumdaraekung'. Due to the use of unique scale and decorative sounds, teachers rate them among difficult songs and thus, they are not fully taught to students.
Meanwhile, a trend is being formed which accentuates the inter-Korean ethnic identities combined with the increasing interchanges with North Korea. There is a need to prepare to properly understand North Korea in order to make provision for the unification which will arrive at some point in the future. For education and understanding North Korea, the approach to searching for ethnic identities is considered efficient. In particular, it is expected that through the use of an effective tool, 'folksongs', which express the emotions the best, the search music-cultural identities will be expedited. Therefore, this article has its purpose in 1) examining the musical characteristics of North Korean folk songs 2) examining the regional distribution conditions 3) utilizing the information into the elementary school education.
This paper has looked at the current education and problems of North Korean folk songs in the current textbooks; sorted out the functional distribution and musical characteristics of North Korean folk songs based on the North Korean folk songs-related material, 'Our songs from the North'; and arranged important points that must be taken into account for selection of songs for North Korean folk songs education.
Firstly, there are only two North Korean folk songs, 'Ssarum' and 'Kumdaraekung', in the current elementary school music textbooks. However, the results of examining the scores in the textbook have shown that the most basic information such as the scale, rhythm, singing techniques, and the areas where the songs are sang is incorrect. In addition, materials such as 'Our songs from the North' and 'The collection of Chosun folk songs' do not have 'Ssarum' and 'Kumdaraekung', making it impossible to know if the two songs represent the region. Also, there must be an adjustment to the textbook which since it only has folk songs from Whanghaedo. Songs from Pyongando,, Hamkyungdo, Jagangdo, and Ryangangdo that reveal the regional characteristics must be listed.
Secondly, there is a good great number of songs of specific functions which is not seen in South Korea. In addition, folk songs and popular songs such as Yangsando, Kaesung Nanbongga, Youngbyunga, Nerigae Taryung, Baettaragi, Jaejun, and Bongjuk Taryung/Bachigi Sori etc are revealed. Therefore, songs that imitate the sounds of wind instruments such as Nanbongga, Urang Taryung, Neilriri, Nanani, and Ninani are universal songs which are commonly sang in this area.
Thirdly, when selecting North Korean folk songs with the consideration of uniqueness and universalness in function, a selection criterion for genres such as folk songs, children's songs, and vulgar songs must be established. The selection criterion must take difficulty into consideration and the difficulty can be managed through a bit of arrangement and lyric changes.
Fourthly, A step-by-step selection of songs is necessary for the efficient education of North Korean folk songs. Songs must be placed in the sequence of increasing difficulty, allowing students to learn easy songs to difficult songs.
Lastly, North Korean folk songs show the frequnecy of appearance in the order of Gyungtori, Menaritori, Susimgatori, and Nanbonggatori. Three sobak four beat or irregular rhythm are very frequent and three sobak three beat is used in Pyungando. Norht Korean folk songs for the textbook should reflect the overall musical characteristics of North Korean folk songs.