(Subject 1)The literati class became ruling class in Song China and that social stratification lasted till Qing China. In detail, the ruling class was literati(shidafu) from Song to early Ming, and gentry(shenshi) from mid Ming to mid Qing, and gentr ...
(Subject 1)The literati class became ruling class in Song China and that social stratification lasted till Qing China. In detail, the ruling class was literati(shidafu) from Song to early Ming, and gentry(shenshi) from mid Ming to mid Qing, and gentry merchant(shenshang) from mid Qing to the downfall of Qing dynasty. According to a wide range social change in late Qing, chinese ruling class , that is genty, began to change their sense of value. In traditional view point, they gave much weight to agriculture than commerce. But they began to think commerce is more important than agriculture, and to engage in commerce is the best way to modernize China from 19th century. As a result , the gentry changed into gentry merchant of his own accord. (Subject 2)The population of China was increased seven times from early Ming to late Qing, in detail from 6.5 million to 4.5 hundred million. The method to feed up increasing population with great speed, Chinese people cannot choose but to add the quantity of grain production. To accomplish this aim, Chinese people lived in Ming-Qing times enlarged cultivated acreage, increased output per unit area, grew potatoes, sweet potatoes, corns inflew from America. The literati who lived in Ming china thougt that the more the number of population is, the better the situation of the country is. Because the population of china is not so many as the later times. On the contrary the literati in Qing china, especially in late Qing China thought that the fewer the number of the population is, the better the situation of the country is. Because they thought too many people live in China at that time.
(Subject 3 ) The development of Huguang province belongs to the most important model of regional development in Ming- Qing period. A common saying that "If Suzhou and Huzhou have a good harvest, all Chinese people can eat enough food" in Sung China changed into the proverb "If Huguang province have a good harvest, all Chinese people can eat enough food" in Ming China. This proverb is the evidence to how important the development of Huguang province in Ming China is! As the Huguang province functioned as a most important granary in Ming-Qing society, the complementary cooperation relationship was established between Huguang province and lower Yangzi region where the most developed area, that is to say the most commerciallized area in Ming Qing society.
(Subject 4 ) As the more development advanced, the more environmental problem appeared. Especially the side effect such as the collapse of dikes beside large and small rivers, the outward flow of earht and sand by deforestation, flood appeared very often. Thus the courts of Ming-Qing dynasty often promulgate edicts and laws to protect ecological environment. But those measures were loosened remarkbly in 18th century, because the courts must feed the people. But there were various thought to protect environment in civil level. Most of them were related to folk religion and the theory of wind and water(fengshui).
(Subject 5 ) There were many institutions for sacrificial rites and religion at urban area in Ming Qing time. The temple for City God and Confucious were established every city area, Fu, Zhou, Xian. Various actions were took place in the temple for City God by local magistrate and gentry. The local magistrate gave offerings to City God twice in every month. And the meetings between local magistrate and gentry were also held at the temple for City God. People also enjoyed their festivals there.