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종결어미와 순차구조 연구: -거든을 중심으로
Reports NRF is supported by Research Projects( 종결어미와 순차구조 연구: -거든을 중심으로 | 2007 Year | 김규현(경희대학교) ) data is submitted to the NRF Project Results
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Project Number A00335
Year(selected) 2007 Year
the present condition of Project 종료
State of proposition 재단승인
Completion Date 2009년 05월 27일
Year type 결과보고
Year(final report) 2009년
Research Summary
  • Korean
  • 연결사로서 조건의 의미를 갖기도 하는 -거든은 종결어미로 사용될 때는 화자가 자신만이 아는 정보를 제시하거나 어떤 명제의 당위성를 부각시키는 맥락에서 사용된다(Lee 1993). 본 연구에서는 자연스러운 일상대화 자료의 분석에 근거하여, 종결어미로 쓰이는 -거든의 용법을 -거든이 사용되는 순차맥락의 구조와 연결지어 분석하였다(Heritage 1984). 즉 선행맥락의 행위에 의해 어떻게 -거든의 사용 맥락이 조성되고, 또 -거든의 발화로 인하여 후행 맥락이 어떻게 창출되는지를 살펴보았는데, 특히 -거든의 발화를 통해 제시되는 화자의 강한 인식적 권리가 '순차적으로' 조욜되는 측면에 중점을 두고 분석을 수행하였다. -거든의 사용이 가져오는 순차적 의미를 파악하기 위하여 대화분석의 방법론을 사용하여(Sacks et al. 1974), 대화참여자의 시각에서 -거든의 사용을 통해 구축되는 사회적 행위가 무엇이지를 구조적으로 조명하고자 하였다. -거든 발화문은 주로 화자가 우선적으로 경험하고 알고 있는 정보를 포함하는데, 이는 화자가 자신의 논점을 제시하는 데 있어서 상대방이 수용할 수 밖에 없는 강한 경험적 근거를 구성한다. -거든 발화문은 음률적으로 올라가는 억양부터 내려가는 억양까지 다양한 음률변화의 폭을 구성하는 데, 억양에 따라 화자의 주장의 정도나 청자로부터의 반응 촉발의 정도가 다양하게 구성된다. 기본적으로 -거든 발화문을 통해 화자가 신정보를 제시할 때, 청자는 해당 정보를 뉴스로 받아드리는 동시에, 이를 통해 화자가 구성하는 설명/해명이 어떠한 성격의 것인지를 추론하여 파악해야 하는 위치에 놓이게 된다. 화자는 이러한 -거든 발화문의 뉴스제공 기능을 하나의 자원/전략으로 사용하여 다양한 성격의 설명/해명을 비명시적으로 구축함으로써, 괄호순차(Schegloff 2007) 등의 형태로 신정보를 배경정보로 삽입하는 등 자신의 논점을 강화하는 행위를 수행할 수 있다(Park 1998). 예를 들어 -거든 발화문은 종종 예비 순차를 구성하는데, 화자는 이를 통해 청자의 뉴스 접수 행위를 토대로 하여 자신이 의도하는 주행위로 나아갈 수 있는 갈 수 있는 순차적 근거를 마련한다. 종종 이러한 관행을 통해 화자는 자신의 행위의 단정적인 성격을 부각시켜 후속 담화의 방향을 통제할 수 있게 되는데. -거든 발화문이 이처럼 강한 사회적 통제력을 갖게 되는 근거로는, 구조적으로 -거든 발화문은 그 내용이 제'뉴스'로 조성되고, 화자가 그에 대한 청자의 뉴스접수 행위를 이끌어 내는 "알려주기-뉴스접수' 인접쌍으로서의 국지적 특성을 갖기 때문이라고 볼 수 있다. 이는 -거든 발화문이 두번째 짝부분 등 "두번째 반응 위치"에서 사용될 때에도 마찬가지인데, 이 경우 -거든-발화문은 선행 행위에 대한 강한 "비선호 반응"을 구성한다. 이러한 맥락에서 -거든 발화문은 종종 선행 행위가 전제하는 내용을 해당 신정보의 제시를 통해 반박하는 등의 강력한 반발행위를 구성하는데, 이 경우 상대방 화자의 뉴스접수 행위는 국지적으로는 단순한 신정보의 접수의 형태를 갖지만 사실상 더 큰 순차적 차원에서는 -거든 발화문 화자의 입장을 수용하는 것으로 받아들여지게 된다. 이러한 -거든의 순차적 성격의 분석을 토대로 -거든과 유사한 의미적 자질을 갖고 있는 연결사 -는데의 순차적 특성을 비교하였고, 아울러 -잖아, -니까 등의 종결어미/연결사와의 차이점을 보일 수 있음을 제시하였다. 의미적 측면에서 -거든을 다른 종결어미나 연결사와 구별시키는 가장 기본적인 자질은, 연결사로서 사용되는 -거든의 경우 화자가 -거든 종속적에서 제시하는 내용이 주절에서 화자가 청자에 요청하는 행위의 "구체적이고 필수적인" 전제 조건이 된다는 특성이 있다는 점과 관련이 있는 것으로 보인다. 즉 -거든 발화문은 화자가 자신(만)이 잘 알고 있는 구체적이고 "단정적인" 성격의 정보, 즉 청자가 수용할 수 밖에 없는 정보를 자신의 행위의 근거로 제시함으로써, 청자가 화자가 의도하는 행위의 성격이 무엇인지에 대한 "집중도 있는 추론"을 하도록 이끄는 상호작용적 특성이 있는 것으로 보이는데, 이러한 점에서 -는데의 설명/해명 행위 구성적 성격과 극명한 차이를 보인다. 본 연구를 통하여 연구자는 전통적인 문장중심, 분석자 중심의 내성적 연구방법에서 벗어나, 대화의 순차구조 중심, 대화참여자 중심의 경험적 연구의 예를 제시하고자 하였다. 이러한 대화분석 연구는 이론적으로뿐만 아니라, 언어학습 측면에서 "진정성있는" 학습맥락에서 제시하는 데 있어서도 시사하는 바가 많을 것으로 기대한다.
  • English
  • The connective -ketun, meaning 'if' (Lee 1993), is also used as a sentence-final particle with which the speaker asserts the information not shared by the interlocutor. On the basis of the examination of naturally occurring Korean conversations, this paper explicates the sentence-final use of -ketun in terms of its sequential import (Heritage 1984), especially with reference to how the speaker's strong epistemic right indexed by -ketun is "sequentially" mitigated. In explicating the sequential import of deploying -ketun, the methodology of conversation analysis is used (Sacks et al. 1974), with the analytic effort being made to illuminate the nature of the actions constituted by -ketun from the perspective of the participants. Containing information that belongs to the speaker, the ketun-utterance presents an 'undisputable' empirical ground (e.g., in the form of a fact or a first-hand experience putatively 'owned' by the speaker). Pronounced with a range of rising, continuing, or falling intonation, -ketun prods the interlocutor to take the account it constitutes as news whose upshot is to be actively inferred by the hearer. This feature of -ketun, while generating an informing sequence (i.e. adjacency pair of informing-news receipt) at the local level, furnishes the speaker with a means of formulating an 'account' by which the speaker implements a variety of social actions, such as counter-informing, pre-telling, or tightening the argument (Park 1998) (e.g. in the form of a parenthetical insert (Schegloff 2007)). What accords -ketun such a strong sense of social control is clearly the nature of the information it formulates as 'news' about which the speaker can claim strong epistemic rights. In this respect, a ketun-utterance, as a second pair part of an adjacency pair, often constitutes a dispreferred response in such a way that the relevance conditioned by the first pair part is resisted on the basis of the proposed newsworthiness, often with the consequence that the speaker pre-empts any subsequent negotiation. In many contexts, the pre-emptive effect that -ketun has on the addressee (in terms of positioning him/her as a collaborative recipient of news) is sequentially mitigated by way of being embedded as part of pre- or post-sequences (or insert sequences). For instance, in the 'first' position, e.g., as a first pair part of an adjacency pair positioned at the first topic slot, the news framed by -ketun may constitute an account produced as a pre-sequence, which projects a sequential trajectory in which the speaker can move on to initiate the main action (e.g., request), often prefaced by a resumption marker such as kulayse or kulaykaciko 'so.' The ketun-marked account, in both first and second positions, is produced as one that is unsolicited but crucially informative in managing sequential order. In this respect, -ketun is distinct from other types of account formulated with different connectives/suffixes such as -nikka (REASON) or -canha (COMMITTAL), which give prominence to the participants' shared perspective (Park 1998, Kim & Suh 1994), or -nuntey (CIRCUMSTANTIAL), which tends to position the interlocutor as the primary speaker by way of subduing any newsworthy feature of the information it frames. The interactional feature of -ketun as the sentence-final particle is shown to be in line with the 'arrangement-making' meaning associated with its use as a connective (i.e. CORRELATIVE) (with the meaning of 'if'), with the ketun-marked clause serving as a basis for an imperative or hortative (constituted by the main clause) by which the speaker's point is formulated as an instruction to be followed by the interlocutor (Example: "If your head hurts again ketun, please come.") (Lee 1993). The findings, grounded on empirical analysis, are shown to have significant pedagogical implications for materials development, particularly in terms of the need to reflect "authentic" language in language teaching materials.
Research result report
  • Abstract
  • From a conversation-analytic perspective (Sacks et al. 1974), this paper attempts to illuminate some aspects of the ways utterance-final markers are used in naturally occurring Korean conversation. Focusing on the use of the Korean sentence-ending suffix (SES) -ketun, it examines various features of the sequential structure -ketun is embedded into. The upshot of the ketun-marked declarative lies in the conveyance of a strong epistemic right of the speaker (Raymond & Heritage 2005) embodied by the practice of presenting the information that belongs to the speaker's territory as an account for a range of social actions (e.g. requesting, complaining, challenging, etc.) (Kamio 1991, Labov & Fanshel 1977) (Example: ce taum cwu wuelyoilnal sihem iss-ketun-yo? "I have an exam next Monday, you see?"). The use of -ketun thus often elicit a news receipt from the interlocutor as the second-pair part by way of serving as the first-pair part (informing) in an adjacency pair of "informing sequence" at the local level. At a more global level of sequence-organization, however, the description presented in the ketun-utterance has a range of sequential imports, which the hearer is solicited to make an inference about. The speaker’s point or stance conveyed through the ketun-utterance is formulated as a non-revisable one, with no possibility of negotiation. The examination of the sequential places where -ketun is embedded suggests that its deployment is implemented in such a way that the assertive force that it indexes in terms of highlighting the speaker's epistemic right is "mitigated" in an array of sequential positions, i.e. positioned as a parenthetical insert or as a post hoc account that illuminates the prior point, often concurrently signaling a shift in stance toward collusion. It is suggested, in this respect, that various uses of -ketun can be examined and accounted for in terms of how the informing sequence -ketun generates (i.e. the adjacency pair of informing-news receipt) is sequentially deployed in the overall sequence-organization, and in terms of how the local action of informing is managed as a practice on the basis of which the action of account-giving is implemented (by the speaker of -ketun) and its upshot inferred (by the recipient of -ketun). When the ketun-utterance is produced as a second-pair part or as a responsive uptake of the prior action, it serves as a counter-informing by which the other’s point is refuted. Such a “second” position is a context where the assertive force of the ketun-utterance is mobilized fully without being sequentially constrained. This set of sequence-organizational features associated with -ketun furnishes us with a basis on which -ketun can be systematically differentiated from other SESs or connectives such as -nuntey. The findings further suggest that pedagogically motivated “authentic” descriptions of -ketun could include the sequential context where it is used, pointing to the need to emphasize not only the grammatical skills to construct a sentence but also the interactional skills to manage epistemic rights by way of mitigating the level of assertion sequentially and interactively.
  • Research result and Utilization method
  • The findings of this study will be useful in providing a new interactional perspective in illuminating the discourse functions of the Korean suffixes, connectives, and discourse markers. The analysis of sequence-organizational features associated with -ketun, for instance, provides us with an understanding of how -ketun can be differentiated from -nuntey in sequential terms. The strongly assertive force indexed in the use of -ketun that highlights the speaker's unque epistemic right necessitates the invocation of a range of methods to mitigate it, which is materialized in such a way that the informing sequence that -ketun initiates locally (i.e. Informing-News receipt) is sequentially embedded (e.g. through pre-sequence, insert sequence, etc.). As for -nuntey, it does not strongly invite the interlocutor's response (e.g. news receipt) and instead tprovides a basis on which the speaker sustains or leaves open the possibility of his/her stance being revised. Even though -nuntey is often used to provide background information just like -ketun, its use does not evoke the interactional need to mitigate the speaker's epistemic right. The findings of this study also have pedagogical implications for developing language teaching materials. The survey of the Korean language textbooks currently in use suggests that the description of the use of -ketun or other sentence-ending suffixes/connective is not adequate either pedagogically or empirically. By drawing upon naturally-occurring conversational data, I present a sample description showing how -ketun is sequentially embedded, suggesting a direction in which language forms can be presented in a more "authentic" sequential context.
  • Index terms
  • conversation analysis, sentence-ending suffix, sequential, epistemic right, practice, social action, speaker's territory, informing sequence, A-event, adjacency pair, first-pair part, second-pair part, pre-expansion, post-expansion, pre-sequence, parenthetical sequence, parenthetical insert, connective, discourse marker, turn-constructional unit, transition-relevance place, stance, collusiveness
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