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문학서술과 영화서술의 상호작용--프랜시스 코폴라의 <<지옥의 묵시록>> 등에 나타난 조셉 콘래드의 <<어둠의 핵심>>의 영화화 문제
Researcher who has been awarded a research grant by Humanities and Social Studies Support Program of NRF has to submit an end product within 6 months(* depend on the form of business)
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Project Number A00368
Year(selected) 2007 Year
the present condition of Project 종료
State of proposition 재단승인
Completion Date 2009년 05월 14일
Year type 결과보고
Year(final report) 2009년
Research Summary
  • Korean
  • <<어둠의 핵심>>의 서술전략은 지금까지 충분하게 설명된 바가 없기 때문에, 이 소설의 문학적이며 문화적인 의의에 관한 비평적 논란의 핵심 원인이 되고 있을 뿐만 아니라 <<지옥의 묵시록>>이나 <<어둠의 핵심>>과 <<킹콩>> 등 소설 <<어둠의 핵심>>에 기반을 두고 영화화된 영화작품의 해석에 있어서도 많은 문제점을 제기하고 있다.
    <<어둠의 핵심>>의 비평적 평가는 그 서술 전략의 분석과 밀접하게 연관되어 있다. <<어둠의 핵심>>은 커츠의 이야기에 대한 글쓰기일 뿐만 아니라 말로의 글쓰기의 이야기이기도 하기 때문이다. 테두리 화자 등을 포함하는 서술의 수준는 커츠의 에피소드와 말로의 담화 수준을 넘어서는 더 많은 수준의 서술 구조를 갖고 있다. 요컨대 <<어둠의 핵심>>은 다수준의 서술구조를 갖고 있다고 말할 수 있다. 각각의 서술은 이야기의 시간과 담론의 시간이라는 이중적인 시간 구조를 갖는다. 그리고 <<어둠의 핵심>>은 (1) 커츠의 에피소드, (2) 말로의 담화, (3) 테두?l 화자의 글쓰기와 (4) 암시적 작가의 글쓰기 등 적어도 4개의 시간구조를 갖고 있다. 커츠의 에피소드는 콩고 강 유역에서 발생한다. 말로의 잡담은 템즈 강 위에 떠 있는 요트 넬리호에서 전개된다. 테두리 화자는 런던에서 서술되고 있다. 암시적 작가를 위해서는 문학적 창작을 위한 이상적인 장소가 암시되고 있다. 각각의 서술은 나름대로의 목적을 위해 독립적인 장소를 차지하고 있지만, 이웃하고 있는 상위의 서술에 의해 은유적으로 둘러싸여 있다. 각각의 서술은 나름대로의 발전 과정을 갖고 있지만 그 의미의 표현을 위해서는 이웃하고 있는 서술에 의존한다. 상위의 서술 수준이 둘러싸고 있는 모습이 완벽하지는 않다. 차라리 그 불완전함이 여러가지 점에서 강조되고 있다. 예를 들면 말로의 담화와 테두리 서술의 경우에서처럼 서술 수준들의 위상적 위계관계는 전복적 아이러니라는 관점에서 설명될 수 있을만큼 비정상적인 경우도 많다.
    영화의 서술구조는 소설의 그것과 유사하지 않다. 두 서술양식의 차이는 영화서술이 보여지는 방식에 의해 주로 제시되는 반면에 문학서술은 말해지는 방식에 의해 재현된다는 점에서 주로 기인한다. 언어가 주요 매체인 소설에서는 말하는 사람, 즉 화자가 중심 이야기의 주요 전달자이지만, 영화에서는 감독이 중심 역할을 한다. 소설처럼 말하기가 대화의 주요 양식이 아닌 영화에서는 화자를 표현하기가 쉽지 않다. 반면에 소설에서는 서술의 흐름을 지시하는 또 다른 인물(agent)의 존재인 암시적 작가를 구별해내기가 정말로 어렵지만, 영화에서는 감독이 암시적 작가와 유사한 입장을 취하는 것이 자연스럽고도 당연하다.
    따라서 영화의 서술전략은 소설의 서술전략과 다를 수밖에 없다. 이것이 프란시스 코폴라가 복잡한 서술구조를 갖고 있는 <<어둠의 핵심>>을 영화화하려는 <<지옥의 묵시록>>에서 적절한 서술구조를 찾기 위해서 고생을 하지 않을 수 없었던 이유인 것이다. 이 부분이 본 논문에서 <<어둠의 핵심>>을 영화화한 <<지옥의 묵시록>>과 <<킹콩>> 등 세 편의 영화를 서술전략의 관점에서 분석하고자 하는 이유인 것이다.
  • English
  • The narrative strategy of Heart of Darkness, which has not been satisfactorily explained, is, I think, one of the major causes of continuous critical debates on its literary and cultural significance and also on its recent film adaptations such as Francis Coppola's Apocalypse Now(1979/2001), Bob Christiansen and Rick Rosenberg's Heart of Darkness(1994) and Peter Jackson's King Kong(2005).
    The critical evaluation of Heart of Darkness is, therefore, closely related with the analysis of its narrative strategy. Heart of Darkness is a story of the writing of Marlow as well as a writing of the story of Kurtz. There is a multi-level narrative structure here, with the frame structure of Chinese boxes, in which more narrative levels are likely to be detected than the levels of Kurtz's episode and Marlow's tale. Heart of Darkness has a multi-level frame narrative structure. Each narrative has a double time structure: story time and discourse time. Heart of Darkness has a least quadruple time structure: Kurtz's episode, Marlow's tale, the frame narrative and the implied writer's writing. The space of each narrative is quite different. Kurtz's episode happens in the River Congo area. Marlow's yarn is spinning on the Nellie on the Thames. The frame narrative is narrated somewhere in London. The ideal space for literary creation is assumed for the implied writer. Each space is independent in its own purpose for each narrative but metaphorically enclosed by its neighboring higher narrative. Each narrative is independent in its own progress but dependent on its neighboring narrative for its significance. The enclosure of higher narrative level is not flawless. Its incompleteness is rather accentuated in many ways. The topological hierarchy of layers of narrations in this Chinese box structure is often disturbed so that the relationship between two neighboring narratives may be described as subversive ironic relationship as in the case of Marlow's tale and the frame narrative.
    The narrative structure of film is not so similar as that of novel. The difference between two modes of narrative is principally caused by the fact that film narrative is presented mainly by way of showing while literary narrative is represented by way of telling. The narrator, i.e. a telling person, is, therefore, a prime presenter of the main story in novel for its dominant medium is language. Director plays a major role in film. This is why narrator is not easy to express in film in which telling is not so dominant a mode of communication as in novel. But it is rather spontaneous and natural to assume the director in a position quite similar to the implied author which is really difficult to discern in novel as another agent of directing its narrative flow.
    The narrative strategy of film is different from that of novel. This is one of the reasons why Francis Coppola has to struggle to find out a suitable narrative structure for Apocalypse Now as a film adaptation of Heart of Darkness whose complex narrative structure has been examined in this paper. This is one of the main reasons why Apocalypse Now, Heart of Darkness the movie and King Kong are examined in this paper for the film adaptations of Heart of Darkness espacially in terms of its narrative strategy.
Research result report
  • Abstract
  • The narrative strategy of Heart of Darkness, which has not been satisfactorily explained, is, I think, one of the major causes of continuous critical debates on its literary and cultural significance and also on its recent film adaptations such as Francis Coppola's Apocalypse Now(1979/2001), Bob Christiansen and Rick Rosenberg's Heart of Darkness(1994) and Peter Jackson's King Kong(2005).
    The critical evaluation of Heart of Darkness is, therefore, closely related with the analysis of its narrative strategy. Heart of Darkness is a story of the writing of Marlow as well as a writing of the story of Kurtz. There is a multi-level narrative structure here, with the frame structure of Chinese boxes, in which more narrative levels are likely to be detected than the levels of Kurtz's episode and Marlow's tale. Heart of Darkness has a multi-level frame narrative structure. Each narrative has a double time structure: story time and discourse time. Heart of Darkness has a least quadruple time structure: Kurtz's episode, Marlow's tale, the frame narrative and the implied writer's writing. The space of each narrative is quite different. Kurtz's episode happens in the River Congo area. Marlow's yarn is spinning on the Nellie on the Thames. The frame narrative is narrated somewhere in London. The ideal space for literary creation is assumed for the implied writer. Each space is independent in its own purpose for each narrative but metaphorically enclosed by its neighboring higher narrative. Each narrative is independent in its own progress but dependent on its neighboring narrative for its significance. The enclosure of higher narrative level is not flawless. Its incompleteness is rather accentuated in many ways. The topological hierarchy of layers of narrations in this Chinese box structure is often disturbed so that the relationship between two neighboring narratives may be described as subversive ironic relationship as in the case of Marlow's tale and the frame narrative.
    The narrative structure of film is not so similar as that of novel. The difference between two modes of narrative is principally caused by the fact that film narrative is presented mainly by way of showing while literary narrative is represented by way of telling. The narrator, i.e. a telling person, is, therefore, a prime presenter of the main story in novel for its dominant medium is language. Director plays a major role in film. This is why narrator is not easy to express in film in which telling is not so dominant a mode of communication as in novel. But it is rather spontaneous and natural to assume the director in a position quite similar to the implied author which is really difficult to discern in novel as another agent of directing its narrative flow.
    The narrative strategy of film is different from that of novel. This is one of the reasons why Francis Coppola has to struggle to find out a suitable narrative structure for Apocalypse Now as a film adaptation of Heart of Darkness whose complex narrative structure has been examined in this paper. This is one of the main reasons why Apocalypse Now, Heart of Darkness the movie and King Kong are examined in this paper for the film adaptations of Heart of Darkness espacially in terms of its narrative strategy.

  • Research result and Utilization method
  • (1) <<어둠의 핵심>>이 모더니즘 소설의 대표작이기 때문에 현대소설의 서술전략을 분석하는 기본틀을 제공하고 있다.
    (2) <<지옥의 묵시록>> 등 영화의 서술전략에 대한 분석은 영화연구의 새로운 방향을 제시할 수 있다.
    (3) 영화와 소설의 서술전략을 비교하는 연구결과는 근대소설의 영화화 작업에 도움이 될 수 있다.
  • Index terms
  • Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness, Francis Coppola's Apocalypse Now(1979/2001), Bob Christiansen and Rick Rosenberg's Heart of Darkness(1994), Peter Jackson's King Kong(2005), the narrative strategy, Marlow, Kurtz, the frame narrative, the implied writer.
  • Examination field of requesting this research issues( The ranking of possible field is up to 3rd place)
  • 1Ranking : 인문학 > 문학 > 영상문학
  • List of digital content of this reports
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