The acceptance of Vladimir Vernadsky’s science theory to literature becomes the starting point of this study. Vernadsky unfolded his theory on biosphere and noosphere, and it had produced a powerful effect on Russian literary circles. Based on the fac ...
The acceptance of Vladimir Vernadsky’s science theory to literature becomes the starting point of this study. Vernadsky unfolded his theory on biosphere and noosphere, and it had produced a powerful effect on Russian literary circles. Based on the fact, this study tries to analyze the aspects reflected in writers’ Weltanschuung and implemented in literature in three categories.
The concept of biosphere reflected in ecological literature
Vernadsky regarded the biological world as one of the geological powers to create and control earth’s environment. He defined it biosphere - the field arising organic interaction between life and non-life. His concept of ‘biosphere’ had provided writers seeking a new outlook on the world with various literary sources. Vernadsky’s concept not only had a big influence on the development of ecology but also aroused the unlimited imagination of writers. The element drawn from Vernadsky’s biosphere, which closely relates man with geological sphere, reveals holistic ecological perspective considering ecosystem as having organism. It is well brought out in the stories such as <Farewell to Matyora> by Valentin Rasputin, <The Queen Fish> by Viktor Astafiev, <The Block> by Chingiz Aitmatov, <Father Forest> by Anatoly Kim.
Generally speaking, the notion of man’s mastery over nature is based on a viewpoint of man’s difference from nature. However, it is clear in the concept of ‘biosphere’ that a man is born in the whole frame of the Earth ecosystem including animals and plants. In addition, the understanding of the concept makes creating a new paradigm which demonstrates a complete whole of the organic and the inorganic world.
The reflection of the concept of noosphere in the advancement of human reason
Vernadsky stands on his hypothesis that the new perspective of humanity becomes possible by conversion of man’s state from biosphere to noosphere. Man’s scientific thought, which had not been existed in the history of biosphere, becomes a momentum to develop science and technology. The earth’s biochemical energy creates new bigger forms of energy through the movement and exchange of chemical elements, growing energy in the process takes shape of noosphere, which is related with man’s reason. This perspective is reflected at the poetry of 1920’s Soviet literary group, The Smithy. The poets, such as Kirillov, Kazin, Gerasimov, Aleksandrovsky, Gastev, Sannikov, clearly expressed that science and technology is useful to humans as well as is a driving force for the development of human consciousness.
The reflection of the concept of super-human in literature
Vernadsky maintains that the concept of ‘noosphere’ never ends even though one reaches there. According to him, noosphere is the sphere of ability to reason, and it evolves. The evolution continues generating beyond humans to the higher beings. In this connection, he provides hypothesis of human evolutions from sub-human to beyond human via the current human. He denies humans as the pinnacle of creation. This perspective was realized in the writers’ worldview. The writers of Natural Philosophy, such as Timur Platov, Anatoly Kim, clearly define the various circles of existence from animals to Christ, presenting the three aspects of evolution – animal, human, real human - in their works. These are literary presentations of Vernadsky’s worldview on beyond-consciousness and beyond-life. Anatoly Kim’s concept of ‘oboroten’ is a good example of a meson between animal and human. In the world of animal, there is a truth of nature. It is that animals do not know such concept as good and evil, freedom of choice… However, humans are easy to make evil choice and fall down lower than animals. According to Vernadsky’, It is human consciousness, which is one of the most vital factors in noosphere, to prevent wrong choice.