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일보 식민통치체제와 여성의 재생산 구조 - Biopower이론을 통한 분석
Reports NRF is supported by Research Projects( 일보 식민통치체제와 여성의 재생산 구조 - Biopower이론을 통한 분석 | 2009 Year | 이헬렌(연세대학교) ) data is submitted to the NRF Project Results
Researcher who has been awarded a research grant by Humanities and Social Studies Support Program of NRF has to submit an end product within 6 months(* depend on the form of business)
  • Researchers have entered the information directly to the NRF of Korea research support system
Project Number A00612
Year(selected) 2009 Year
the present condition of Project 종료
State of proposition 재단승인
Completion Date 2011년 04월 25일
Year type 결과보고
Year(final report) 2011년
Research Summary
  • Korean
  • 영문 보고를 참고하시기 바랍니다.
  • English
  • Nagai’s metaphoric explanation of haijo emphasizes ‘weeding out of the undesirables’, while my paper will look at the use of this notion as a measure to prevent any potential conception of the undesirables. That is, the notion of death, or the action to kill, is premised on birth. My discussion of eugenic haijo takes one extra step back and looks at the way in which the body is managed before conception. I will mainly talk about this phase of elimination through surgical procedures of ?釋Ndanshu, or sterilization.
    I would like to first talk about the debates surrounding the eugenic haijo by engaging with the writings by proponents and theoreticians of the eugenics campaigns, paying particular attention to Ikeda Shigenori. Ikeda Shigenori was born in 1892 in Akita, and earned his bachelor’s degree in Siamese language (Thai) at the Tokyo University of Foreign Languages and started his career as an editor for the magazine Daikan. Later he worked for the Hochi Newspaper during which time he was dispatched to Germany and served as a correspondent for five years. Upon his return to Japan in 1925, Ikeda built his social network with like-minded intellectuals, entrepreneurs, and government officials to launch a movement calling for eugenic reform in Japan, and founded a journal, Y㉠sei undo, Eugenics Movement, in 1926 (serialized from November 1926-January 1931). This journal was short-lived, and was discontinued in 1931. A year after the termination of his journal in 1932, Ikeda took up the position as chief editor for the Keijo nippo in colonial Korea. Ikeda’s role and influence in the publishing world in colonial Korea, and also the eugenic reform, is another topic of research that I hope to address in the future. In 1939, Ikeda returned to Hochi Newspaper as chief editor and died in 1966, at the age of 74. Prolific writer and journalist, Ikeda wrote about 42 books and hundreds of essays.
    Broadly, Ikeda divides the eugenics campaigns into positive and negative practices.
    Positive campaigns seek eugenic betterment through the increase in eugenic marriages, while negative campaigns aim to reduce the marriage rate of those who are deemed unfit.
    Throughout his earlier writings, Ikeda criticized the negative campaigns as immature ‘當禮ㅚㅻ’assertions made by eugenicists, and stressed the positive, constructive eugenic life by way of promoting eugenic marriages. For Ikeda, positive eugenic precepts meant popularization of guidelines conducive for eugenic marriages, which meant fostering the ability to select a eugenically fit spouse. In his 1927 article in Y㉠sei undo, Ikeda identifies ten categories of those who should not get
    married. In addition to those with genetically-transmitted mental illnesses and
    physical disabilities, including blindness, deafness and epilepsy(?d?B), Ikeda also ruled-out alcoholics, chronic criminals, and the "lazy" individuals, such as prostitutes and the poor.
    In another 1927 essay in Y㉠sei undo, Ikeda Shigenori articulates a relationship
    between marriage and sex. Eugenicists have opposed marriages of those who are
    deemed unfit, Ikeda reaffirms. But this does not restrict one’s sex life, Ikeda asserts
    and goes on to explain how people often equate marriage and sex, and misunderstand
    the objectives of the eugenics movement. To eugenicists, marriage is a precondition for reproduction. And that is why we disapprove of marriages of those who have inferior genes, but we do not mean to ban their sex life. That is, the proponents of eugenic marriage acknowledge that people who potentially have inferior genes are entitled to fulfilling human desires such as sex. We simply ask that they exercise conscience (좁懃) and refrain from reproduction, for his or her own sake, and for the sake of others and future generations to come. To this end, surgical procedures and contraceptives are readily available.
Research result report
  • Abstract
  • Life that Does not Deserve to be Born: Ikeda Shigenori (1892?\1966)’s Call for Eugenic ‘haijo’

    The debates and campaigns for the eugenics movement that was launched during the late 1920s in imperial Japan have been addressed by scholars such as Jennifer Robertson, Sabine Fr㉨hst㉨ck, and Tessa-Morris Suzuki, among others. This paper seeks to engage in a dialogue with existing scholarly works through a close examination of the necropolitical aspirations in biopolitics. If Foucaultian theory of biopower explains how sovereign power is increasingly manifested through optimization and maximization of the body, the movement to let live rather than kill, the eugenics movement was in large part driven by biopolitical desire that ironically accompanied technologies to eliminate the undesirables. Nagai Hisomu (1876-1957), a prominent medical doctor who played a central role in Japan’s eugenics movement in the 1920s, compares eugenic elimination with that of a gardener who has to remove harmful weeds for the promotion of healthy growth of desirable plants. [zasÞ wo nakusu] It is this notion of forceful elimination, or haijo (탤뇜) in Japanese, that is the primary focus of this project.
  • Research result and Utilization method
  • This project embarks on an investigation of theories of eugenics in the context of imperial Japan, and how such theories shaped and affected population control policies and medical practices. Nagai Hisomu is a central figure in the discourse of eugenics in imperial Japan, and his writings are main sources of research. One of the most noticeable features in Nagai's theorization is that of negative eugenics by way of sterilization. Nagai has proposed several categories of the undesirables to be sterilized for the sake of improving the overall quality of the Japanse population. This research will be expanded into an article length work that largely deals with the concept of 'elimination,' the evil twin of bipolitics, to address how the notion was brought to the central stage of eugenic debates and was carried out to affect birth control and sterilization policies.
  • Index terms
  • Imperial Japan, Theories of Eugenics, Politics of Reproduction, Population Control, Bipower, Eugenic Elimination, Sterilization, Racial Science, and Nagai Hisomu.
  • List of digital content of this reports
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