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‘은자(隱者) 왕국’의 세상 엿보기 혹은 좌절된 접속―1893년 시카고 만국박람회와 1900년 파리 만국박람회에 전시된 ‘세기말’ 한국
Researcher who has been awarded a research grant by Humanities and Social Studies Support Program of NRF has to submit an end product within 6 months(* depend on the form of business)
  • Researchers have entered the information directly to the NRF of Korea research support system
Project Number A00010
Year(selected) 2008 Year
the present condition of Project 종료
State of proposition 재단승인
Completion Date 2011년 04월 27일
Year type 결과보고
Year(final report) 2011년
Research Summary
  • Korean
  • 제2차년도에는 대한제국의 1900년 파리세계박람회 참가와 그 역사적인 의의 및 유산을 조사하고 분석하는데 초점을 맞춰 수행하였다. 2009년 9월부터 2010년 8월까지 네덜란드에서 레이든 대학교(Leiden University) 방문교수 신분으로 체류하였던 본 연구자는 연구수행을 위해 파리를 2차례 방문하였다. 이 기간에 프랑스국립도서관과 국립공문서보관소를 각각 방문하여 연구수행에 필요한 1차 사료를 발굴 조사하였고, 관련된 자료들을 복사하고 분석하였다. 아울러 1900년 파리박람회 개최 장소였던 시내를 답사하면서 현재까지도 보존되어 있는 기억의 터전들을 촬영하였으며 당시 한국 파빌리옹에 전시되었던 전시물의 일부가 보관되어 있는 기메국립아시아예술박물관(Musée national d'arts asiatiques Gumet)도 방문하였다. 문헌연구와 현장답사의 1차적인 성과는 아래와 같은 내용을 중심으로 두 번째 연구논문을 현재 집필 중이다. 완성된 논문의 초고는 2011년 6월에 러시아 모스크바에서 개최될 유럽한국학회(AKSE 2011)에서 발표될 예정이다.
  • English
  • The first encounter between Korea and France occurred in the middle of the 19th century, when a number of French Catholic missionaries arrived at the Hermit Kingdom to convert Koreans into Christianity. Korean ruling class, whose political legitimacy had been based on an orthodox neo-Confucianism, rigorously prohibited the spread of Catholicism among poor peasants and discontented elites. The incompatibility of religious beliefs combined with political sense of crisis after all triggered a massacre against Catholics in 1866, in which nine French missionaries had been executed. And memories of the bloody incident prevented friendly relationships between Korea and France even after the official sign of treaty in 1886. Both countries had to wait for the change of tides. Finally when G. Lefèvre, then French diplomat in Seoul, delivered on behalf of French Third Republic an official invitation to the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900 to King Kojong, he welcome it as an opportunity to readdress Franco-Korean relation. Perhaps he wanted to take advantage of the Exposition as another chance of soliciting economic aids and diplomatic allies, obtaining the first-handed information and technology from Western countries as well.
    Not to repeat ill preparation and disappointed turn-outs of the previous Chicago Columbian World Exposition of 1893, the King Kojong in 1897 appointed Min Younghan, the ministry of foreign affair, to an special envoy in charge of handling all the business regarding the incoming Paris Exposition, and later also appointed Min Youngwhan, the vice-ministry of justice to a sécretaire de Corée auprès de l'Exposition universelle de Paris. French government cooperated by arranging financial aid in the construction of Korean Pavilion. Thanks to monetary support from Baron Delort de Gléon and Comte de Mimerel, the Korean Pavilion managed to open at the corner street of suffren in Champ-de-Mars. Morris Courant, a de factor curator of the Korean exhibition in Paris, recorded in his memoir that many a visitors had stopped by the Korean Pavilion and expressed curiosity about Korean society and culture.
    This paper tries to reappraise the motivation and consequences of Korea’s participation at l’Exposition Universelle de Paris of 1900. What prompted King Kojong to have Korea be a part of the Paris Exposition at the critical time of domestic and foreign crisis In terms of constructing and propagating new national identity of modern Korea, were there any significant differences between its participation at the Chicago Columbian Exposition and Paris Universal Exposition What kind of knowledge and (mis)perception did European countries had on a poor and isolated kingdom in the Far East Had the Korea's involvement with the Paris World Exposition at the turn of the century left any positive and/or negative impacts on its modernization movement These are major questions that this paper will raise and attempt to answer.
    In addition, the paper, instead of interpreting the case exclusively within the context of Korean history, will approach the Paris Exposition in a global historical perspective. Assuming that the Exposition would mean many different things to different nations, the paper will pay a close and comparative attention to contemporary (international) politics and society of both France and Korea. How did the French Third Republic endeavor to reestablish its national unity and dignity after the humiliating experiences of Panama scandal and Dreyfus Affair, whereas the Great Han Empire of Korea struggled to become a respectful and legitimate member of the newly emerging international community at the turn of the century In other words, the paper will present a kind of "the tales of two nations," which were ignorant each other but entangled at the Paris Exposition.
Research result report
  • Abstract
  • Most of the World Expositions hosted by industrialized Western nations between the second half of the 19thcentury and the first half of the 20th century served as cultural tools for imperialism, platforms for social Darwinism, and show windows for Orientalist discourse. On the other hand, those World Expositions represented golden opportunities for less developed Asian countries to establish relationships with thee mergingi nternational community and to(re)position themselves in a changing regional and worl dorder. Thus, those Asian countries were not passive and innocent victims of colonizers but active participants who negotiated and contested with Western powers in the process of their nation-state-building and modernization efforts.
    Keeping the dualistic nature of World Expositions in mind, this paper reappraises the process, characteristics, and historical legacy of Korea?s involvement in the World?s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. What were Westerners? typical (mis)perceptions of fin de si?cle Koreans (and their culture) and vice versa? What type of ?clash of civilizations? occurred at the Exposition between Western materialism and the Confucian world view? To what extent was Korea?s experience in Chicago unique as well as universal in comparison with that of other Asian countries? ln addressing these questions, this paper focuses more on narrating an alternative version of world history based on Korea?s experience than on providing another version of modern Korean history. Avoiding the so-called ?global parochialism,? this paper uncovers the conflicts and rivalries among Asian countries during the Columbian Exposition.
  • Research result and Utilization method
  • 조선의 1893년 시카고 세계박람회 참가 사례를 다룬 논문은 현재 SSCI 및 HSI 등재 국제학술지에 투고를 완료한 상태로서 그 결과통보를 기다리고 있다. 대한제국의 1900년 파리세계박람회 참가의 역사적 의의와 그 현재적 유산에 관한 제 2 논문은 2011년 유럽한국학회에서 발표하고 SSCI 및 HSI 등재 국제학술지에 투고할 계획이다. 다른 한편 본 연구자는 Asian Counties as Exhibitied at World Expositions Revisited in a Global Historical Perspective를 기획하여 조직하였고 최종적인 결과물은 2011년에 University of Amsterdam Press에서 간행될 예정이다. 이밖에도 본 연구자는 Ireland의 University College Cork 부속 한국학연구소 창립기념 특별강의와 노르웨이 오슬로 대학 아시아-인류학과의 초청을 받아 같은 주제의 논문을 발표하였다. 본 연구결과는 최소한 다음과 같은 세 가지 측면에서 학문연구 및 세상 읽기에 기여할 것으로 보인다. 본 연구테마가 학제간 혼성적연구를 자극하고, 기존의 서구 중심주의적 연구경향을 탈피하여 새로운 세계사의 대안적인 모델로서 지구사 서술의 가능성과 잠재성을 타진하고 자극하는데 도움이 될 것으로 기대된다. 또한 박람회 참여를 사례연구로 삼아 살펴본 세기말 한국의 세계인식과 타자에 대한 집단적 정신자세를 이해함으로 세계화의 역사적 기원과 그 유산을 곱씹어볼 기회를 제공할 것으로 기대된다
  • Index terms
  • World?s Columbian Exposition of 1893, Fin de Si?cle Korea (Joseon), King Kojong, Chung Kyung Won, Korean Exhibit, Yun Chi-Ho, Horace N. Allen, William F. Griffis
  • List of digital content of this reports
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