When pre-service teachers become in-service teachers for the first time, they feel very difficulties because of difference between theory and practice. It is necessary to cultivate practical knowledge during the pre-service teacher, but it is not eno ...
When pre-service teachers become in-service teachers for the first time, they feel very difficulties because of difference between theory and practice. It is necessary to cultivate practical knowledge during the pre-service teacher, but it is not enough time to make up practical knowledge because of too short practicum. To solve these problems, we developed 'Learning Assistant (LA) Program Based Practical Curriculum for pre-service teachers' which can enhance the teaching ability of pre-service teachers and to facilitate the learning of curriculum contents.
The LA program consists of LA-cultivation course and LA-activity course. Subjects for LA-cultivation consist of four stages: (1)Learning about teaching theory; (2) Establishing concrete plans for teaching strategies. (3) Execute LA activities based on the plan. (4) Looking back at teaching strategies and experiences. LA-activity course is called "light and sound" as cultural course in KNUE. LA participates in the class together with the lecturer. A group of three or four learners is assigned to one LA to provide individualized and customized learning support to learners.
LA and the learners learned to interact with each other. First, we examined the change of practical knowledge of LA through practical knowledge self-evaluation paper. The analysis showed that the pre- and post- response sample t-test significantly improved (p <.05). This means that LA thinks their practical knowledge has improved through LA programs. Also, after conducting a conceptual examination of the geometrical optics of LA, the concept of geometric optics became sophisticated and refined after the LA program. This can be seen as the elaboration and development of pedagogical content knowledge.
Next, we examined the conceptual change and discussion interaction patterns of learners who are assisted by LA. The conceptual change of learners was compared with the concept problem in 2015. As a result, LA participant group had higher average score and lower standard deviation than non-participation group in LA. In 2016, it was confirmed through Hake Gain ((post test score - pre test score)/(100 - pre test score)) that gain was higher in LA participating group than in LA non-participating group, however, and delay gain was interestingly lower in LA participating group than LA non-participating group. As a result, it can be seen that the help of the LA has a positive influence on the concept change of learners. The learner's discussion interaction patterns were categorized as consent, response, elaboration, and no interaction. As a result, responding interaction in LA participating group showed the highest degree of elaboration interaction in LA non - participation group. The reason for this is that as LA participates, discussions progress toward LA and learners tend to rely on LA.
Lastly, we compared between LA practicum and non-LA practicum using TDOP analysis tool and social network analysis. As a result of TDOP analysis, LA had a higher frequency than non-LA and performed teaching activities corresponding to various codes. In the potential student cognitive engagement category, the ratio of LA was higher than that of non-LA, which means that LA had various class activities to induce students' cognitive participation. In addition, as a result of analyzing the codes of TDOP by social network, the codes of connection between teachers and students were larger and thicker than those of non-LA. In particular, LA was stronger in connecting the codes related to inducing cognitive participation in the dialogue between teachers and students.
The results of this study can be used to develop an effective teacher preparation program that teaches practical knowledge, and long-term grasp of changes in pre-service teachers until they become first-time teachers. In addition, LA can expect to cultivate practical knowledge through learning opportunities through teaching, and learners who are supported by LA can expect to cultivate knowledge of curriculum contents. Also, by help of LA, one teacher can solve the difficulties that have been experienced in class.