A Study on Qaidu's Last Ferocious Battlefield
The purpose of this study is to historically research into where the combat branch was exactly between Qaidu(海都) and Da Yuan(大元) Ulus military, which took place at the Altai Mountains in the eighth lunar ...
A Study on Qaidu's Last Ferocious Battlefield
The purpose of this study is to historically research into where the combat branch was exactly between Qaidu(海都) and Da Yuan(大元) Ulus military, which took place at the Altai Mountains in the eighth lunar month in 1301.
This very fierce combat, which drove Qaidu to be dead who had built the co-called “Qaidu Ulus” in the central Asia from the late 13th century and had dominated powerful hegemony, is a research that needs the correct historical investigation for the right understanding about the imperial history of Mongolia. The Chinese-character historical record 『Yüan Shi(元史)』 and the Persian historical record 『Jāmi’ at-tavārīkh』, which can be said to be two historical records of a research on the imperial history of Mongolia in line with its importance, are especially recording its place name along with the detailed depiction on the fight that happened between both sides in those days. The specific records of both sides on its place names include the place names in light of the Chinese-character historical record called “鐵堅古ㆍ迭怯里古ㆍ帖堅古”, “合剌合塔ㆍ哈剌答” and “兀兒禿”, and the place names in light of the Persian historical record dubbed “Tegelkū” and “Qarāltū.” However, the currently typical researchers related to Qaidu in the East and the West are mostly recognizing that the last ferocious battlefield of Qaidu is the western region to the Jabkhan river and the southern region to the Altai Mountains, but are in a situation of failing to clarify its accurate location.
This researcher tried to generally reconstruct a historical situation in those days through a documentary research and an on-site survey in addition to where the last ferocious battlefield of Qaidu is located at Altai Mountains through the primary exploration in July 2013 and the secondary local field survey of Altai in Mongolia in July 2016. It directly performed a field survey on place names, which were confirmed through a documentary historical-source research, exactly examined many terrain features and locations in those places, and then strived to historically investigate correctly into whether all of “region(地域)ㆍhistorical source(史料)ㆍhistorical fact(史實)” are consistent. These primary and secondary field surveys were performed an investigation into the locally place names and terrain features of which he informed, in addition to the evidence of a native old villager of Kazakh named ‘Temerzan Babakhan’.
Synthetically analyzing through this, its historical region is comparatively determined as the whole area of Delüün Sum in Bayan-ölgii Aimag of the current Mongolian country. In other words, based on the center of Delüün Sum, it is consistent in “鐵堅古ㆍ迭怯里古ㆍ帖堅古 = Tegelkū” with Delüün uul(Дэлүүн уул; in Mongolian), “合剌合塔ㆍ哈剌答 = Qarāltū” with Khar khad(Хар хад; in Mongolian), and “兀兒禿 = Urtu” with Urt salaa(Урт салаа; in Mongolian) region.
Reconstructing the histories in those days based on this through the Chinese-character historical record and the Persian historical record, those are as follows.
Qaidu and his military, which moved south by passing the Altai Mountains, got into combat at (1)Delüün uul(鐵堅古山, mountain called Tegelkū)’ with the military of Da Yuan Ulus in early August of 1301. Thus, the side of Da Yuan Ulus achieved victory. Qaidu, who had retreated on the north, advanced with all of his groups two days after it. Thus, a big battle was fought again in a place called (2)Khar khad(合剌合塔, mountain called Qarāltū) where is 35km away from the northwest of Delüün Sum. When the armed forces of Da Yuan Ulus were caught short, Qaishan(海山) directly came out into the field and then defeated the Qaidu military, took up all of its military supplies(輜重), and came out with rescuing princes(諸王) and king's son-in-law(駙馬). A battle was fought again next day. The military of Da Yuan Ulus backed down slightly. Qaidu embraced an opportunity to attack. Thus, Qaishan directly spearheaded the military again and then attacked the rear of the enemy camp, resulting in the whole army's return. As for Qaidu following it, Du-a(都哇) of Chagatai Ulus joined the Qaidu military, thereby leading to a rise in its military strength and then advancing again to the whole area of ‘Delüün Sum.’ Thus, a combat took place on the hill dubbed (3)Urt salaa(兀兒禿, Urtu) that is 5km away from its eastern part. At this battle, Ashi(阿失) allowed the mark of arrow to hit Du-a's knee. Thus, Du-a was severely wounded to drop back. Qaidu also returned with failing to attain his aim and then was dead after some days.
The last combat between both sides in the whole area of Delüün Sum in Altai region in 1301, which led to his death, played a decisive role in changing the histories of the Mongolian empire in the early 14th century. That is because of having made it available for dominating the hegemony again on the central Asia by allowing Da Yuan Ulus to recover status as Qa’an Ulus after bringing down the so-called ‘Qaidu Ulus,’ which had dominated hegemony for a long time in the central Asia. And this played a great role in being integrated into one in the Mongolian world empire, which had been confused for a fairly long time, and led to continuing a system of ‘Pax Mongolica’.