Zhuzi's Li(禮) is the imitation of the nature’s order of Yiyin-yiyang as well as the moral principle of the human world. The discipline that shows and leads us to this co-relatedness is the studying what is near at hand aspiring to what is lofty, the t ...
Zhuzi's Li(禮) is the imitation of the nature’s order of Yiyin-yiyang as well as the moral principle of the human world. The discipline that shows and leads us to this co-relatedness is the studying what is near at hand aspiring to what is lofty, the term that describes a motion that becomes the same of Tianli, by practicing filial piety and brotherly love in a casual life. Xiaoxue is the key of the studying what is near at hand.
This paper shed new light on the essence of Zhuzi’s theory of Li, together with its limit. It’s done by seeing our daily life and the essence of Li, which is composing the order of our life. Ontology, Suoconglai Suoyiran and Suodangran are the tools that can analyze Zhuzi’s theory of Li. Ontological Deontology is a good way of analyzing Zhuzi’s theory of Li since his Li pulls out ‘Ought-as-a-human-being’ from ‘Modes of Being.’
In the second chapter, I search for the Human Ontology of the Sung-ming confucianism to make the essence of Zhuzi’s theory of Li clear. Since Being is a Ought in the Sung-ming confucianism, we need to question what human being is before looking over the theory of Li. Many Sung-Ming Confucian put the basis of human existence on the nature as it’s well shown in Taijitushuo and Ximing. Consequently, the basic law of Human Being has its base on the order of nature.
In chapter three, I find the origin and idea of Li by looking at Suoconglai, the process of the justification of the morality in the Confucian Ethics. It is the process of pulling out the moral justice from the heaven. According to Zhuzi, first, Li is made by human, imitating the laws of the heaven. Accordingly, Li is the intermediary between human and the heaven. In this regard, Li has both naturalness and artificiality. Second, practicing Li aims to be back to the nature and to get Wu-xin. Third, there’re three principles in the base of Li, which connect human being to the nature. That is the principle of Deducting, of Abstinence and of Separation. It supports the theory of Li of Sung-ming confucian, who wants to be back to the nature by practicing Li.
In chapter four, based on the Human-Ontology, Suoconglai of Li, in the previous chapter, I show the process of justification of practicing Li. This investigation of Suoyiran is the discussion answering to the question, "why should a human be moral " The reason of why a human should be moral in Zhuzi's Confucianism is because it’s the fulfillment of humanness and also because it’s the way of returning to his own human nature, which is given from the heaven. In Zhuzi's Confucianism, human nature is not the status of ‘lacking’ but of ‘fullness’. Bright Command is just a bright light hidden in everyone’s own nature. Zhuzi think that everyone has it’s own bright nature. To Zhuzi, Self-Cultivation is finding his not corrupted nor disdained bright nature and peace. Every human should find this his own natural nature. The way of finding it should be started from studying his casual and daily life. The textbook of the study is the bible and the Sages. Jing is the way of accomplishing the Self-Cultivation.
In the fifth chapter, I research the place where the Suodangran works and it’s principle of working. The place of Li, the modes of practicing of suodangran, is our daily life and it’s the place where Tao moves around. The Sage is the person who shows Tao to us and faithful to the order of our daily life. It’s the family that is in the center of the daily life. Therefore, the filial piety and brotherly love in a family is the most basic and central way of making a layperson to be a Sage. In Confucianism, the center of daily life is family and this daily life can be divided by a village community and a nation. The principle of practicing Li is lineage in a family, age in a village community, social status in a nation.